AL Smith on the Home Front
‘AL Smith on the Home Front’
Anna Sander, Archivist & Curator of Manuscripts, Balliol College, Oxford
Transcript/tidied up notes of a talk given as part of the Unlocking Archives series on Friday 19 February 2016, 1-2pm, at Balliol Historic Collections Centre, St Cross Church, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UH.
I feel while giving this talk – even more than usual – that I should have a sign saying Dissertation Idea that I can hold up at strategic points during the talk, because the archive is so rich on so many subjects. I’ll provide something of an overview of AL Smith’s life and work, but I want to concentrate for this talk on the First World War and AL’s election to the Mastership in 1916, and to look at archival sources of information about that.
Arthur Lionel Smith (1850-1924) was Balliol through and through: matriculated 1869, Tutor 1874, Lecturer 1879, Fellow 1882, Dean 1907, Master 1916. Though he was a particularly engaged and hardworking Fellow and Master of Balliol, a great part of his time and energy was devoted to work outside the college (even including a five-year Fellowship at Trinity) and outside Oxford. In this illustrated talk, I will open up some of his extensive personal, academic and administrative archive to show some of his activities at home and away during the First World War.
The intention of the talk, is, as usual, to draw out some of the themes present in the archive, and to encourage further and more detailed research in this rich and yet under-examined archive and related fonds at Balliol, in Oxford, and elsewhere. The AL Smith archive is open to researchers at all levels, with or without formal institutional affiliations. More information about consulting Balliol’s archives and manuscripts is here.
I have to say first that I feel I have got to know Mrs AL (also known as MF, Mary Florence Baird Smith) at least as well as AL (Arthur Lionel Smith) himself while putting this paper together. I certainly couldn’t have written it without her, because her biography of AL is still the only one, and beside that she was his secretary while he was Master, so may well be thanks to her personally that so much of his correspondence for this period survives. It should be said, though, that the archive, which came to the college through a number of hands, has had to be restored to an order perhaps not quite original, by more than one person since. I think Mrs AL does deserve, in the words of her 1946 Times obituary, ‘to be remembered as one of the great matrons of the Victorian and post-Victorian period’. This extract from that obituary, I think, brings up several aspects of her experience that are in themselves dissertation-worthy:
From The Times, 16 December 1946: ‘For more than three decades ‘Mrs AL’ was one of the institutions of Balliol. Her life of her husband is an autobiography as well as a biography. In it she describes how she became ‘domestic bursar’ of their ménage, and in fact much more. This, when AL was master she learnt to type and file in order to take over secretarial duties. All through her life she shepherded her husband and headed off anxieties and cares as well as unwelcome visitors. Her powers of management were needed in order to give full scope to her husband’s brilliance. But she was far from being a mere hausfrau [is this what we have just read described , a ‘mere hausfrau’?] and she could and did express her opinions with admirable sense, wit and incisiveness. The dominant instinct throughout her long life was the maternal. She mothered not only her sisters, her nine children and then in later life her grandchildren and great-grandchildren, but also many generations of undergraduates, black sheep as well as white, and conducted one of the first Infant Welfare Centres in Oxford.’ 
So there we have meat for several essays:
- a) the role of women in facilitating their husbands’ academic careers during this period, and the academic and social changes brought about by changes in university regulations making Fellows other than Professors and Heads of House being free to marry (1877). AL and MF married in 1879 – surely his career could not possibly have taken the shape it did without the particular home life they built together?
- b) the history of Infant Welfare Centres, especially in Oxford, and the role of social class and education for organisers and clients
- c) the history of an archive: how was this material put together, where are the related collections, how has it been ‘edited’, what choices have been made along the way about what survives? and by whom?
AL, MF and many more of the clan are buried in Holywell Cemetery, just behind this church to which they must have walked from the King’s Mound on so many Sunday mornings, and where the family must regularly have taken up a couple of pews. It’s particularly apt to be giving this talk in this place.
Time for a very brief biographical overview of AL, in which I will not footnote the source of every detail as most are repeated in several sources; for all this and further information, start with the introductory chapter of MF’s biography, the ODNB entry and Tim Procter’s introduction to the Smith archive catalogue online, which begins:
‘Arthur Lionel Smith was perhaps the first Master of Balliol since Benjamin Jowett to acquire something of a national reputation.’ 
Well, there had only been two, to be fair to them. But AL was particularly dedicated to access to education, and higher education, for all, and that is the field in which he acquired – and retains – said national reputation.
Arthur Lionel Smith was born in London on December 4th 1850, the second son of William Henry Smith, a civil engineer and his wife Alice Elizabeth, who had five children altogether. His father died when he was young, and Smith was sponsored to enter Christ’s Hospital (the school) by a family friend. Christ’s Hospital is now in the lovely Sussex countryside, but was then a school of 800 still in London, so don’t imagine a rural idyll. The eldest son entered the Navy, one child had died in infancy, and Mrs Smith took the other two with her to live in Rome and then the US. The young AL did not have an easy childhood at school, but academically he evidently thrived at Christ’s Hospital, of which he later became a Board member, and came up to Balliol on an exhibition in 1869. He got a First in Litterae Humaniores (Classics), but played hard too; he joined the College Hockey XI, and sculled and rowed bow for the Head of the River crew in 1873.
He then decided to read for the relatively new School of Modern History, gaining a Second and a Lothian Prize after only a year in 1874. His first Fellowship was in his first subject, Greats, next door at Trinity, and during this period he studied for the Bar as well. However, 1879 brought both his marriage to Mary Florence Baird – remember, this is only two years after Fellows were permitted to retain Fellowships upon marriage – and a Lectureship in modern history at Balliol. With a Fellowship following in 1882, things were set fair for the rest of his life at Balliol‘s heart.
From the early years, AL was active in University administration – in 1882 he became Junior Proctor, and was a Curator of the Bodleian Library as well as a Trustee of the University Endowment Fund, which he helped to establish. He also became a member of the Hebdomadal Council, and a good chunk of his archive contains correspondence and documentation about his work with these university committees.
Modern History as a discipline in its own right was in its infancy around the turn of the 20th century, and AL was instrumental in its development in Oxford and at Balliol, as a tutor, Examiner and Ford Lecturer. The Ford Lectures, consisting of six lectures in English or British history, given over a year and usually published, were established in 1896, which shows how recently the subject was thought important enough for a named lecture series. Smith was the lecturer in 1905, only the 10th year of the series. His influence soon spread considerably outside Oxford as he became a History examiner for the universities of Cambridge, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Bristol, Glasgow and Wales as well. One of the oft-repeated memories of AL is that of him dashing off to catch a train – he was always travelling.
Widening education as much as possible had always been at the heart of AL’s teaching, and he was the right man in the right place at the right time to do something about it. From before the turn of the century access to higher education for the working classes and women, and working class women, had been a matter of growing discussion in society and in the universities, and the huge social changes of the First World War opened up those movements even more, as we shall see.
As well as educational reform, Smith was also involved in religious reform, serving on the Archbishops’ Committee on Church and State, helping to write its report in 1916, and on one of the five committees examining “Christianity and Industrial Problems.” And while the terrible consequences of the war would have been desperately and personally clear to him, he believed that its upheaval of civil society should be used in the following for moral, spiritual and educational reform throughout society , and he travelled and lectured a lot about that as well. So all these issues were bound up together for him.
We’ve now reached 1914 and it’s time to focus on Balliol and Oxford, and the changes brought by the First World War…
Briefly, to set the scene for Balliol and AL Smith during WW1: the summer of 1914 does appear from photos to have been as golden as its reputation, but Oxford students were among the first to volunteer in droves when war was declared in August, and the life of the college was immediately and completely changed.
In 1914 there were 19 teaching staff plus the Master, 15 Fellows + 4 lecturers – this number was to drop from 20 to 6 in very short order, and in effect only three Fellows were keeping the college running through most of the war. You’ll notice from College Register entries for the war years that a surprising number of students are enrolled each year – but this number would in practice have dwindled rapidly as men completed their training and took up their commissions and other posts on active service. There were just a handful of conscientious objectors from Balliol itself, which is another topic possibly for another day and another dissertation, but we will return to conscientious objection later.
What was happening at the college? What was ALS doing? Mrs AL tells us that right from ‘August 1914 the college was full of soldiers: first, some of the Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry then later on, batches of officers in training and cadet battalions of all sorts. Of undergraduates only about forty or fifty remained, and these mostly in training.’ 
Though there were fewer students to teach, there were still some coming up every year, and the college was certainly full. Although the resident officer cadets were not members of the college, there will have been a certain amount of administrative contact with the Army organisers as well as all the maintenance and hospitality involved.
When he became Master in the spring of 1916, AL and his family moved from the King’s Mound to the Master’s Lodgings. Can you imagine living in a room looking over the garden quad and waking up to a sergeant major conducting cadet drill every morning?
Army life in College was quite a phenomenon: AL contributed hugely to the great sense of welcome and belonging, and a lot of fun, experienced by all these servicemen, many ex-Balliol and ex-Oxford, but many more not university men at all, and many from the Commonwealth, particularly Australia. A positive side of wartime on active service is hard for us to appreciate at this remove, but was certainly real. I am still dealing with the – I was trying to find a positive synonym for fallout and I couldn’t – consequences of the officer cadets’ enjoyment of their periods of 6 weeks to four months, some even shorter, at Balliol, because in many cases the Balliol and Oxford experience turned into wartime reminiscences that could safely be shared at home in later years, and often became cherished family stories. In some cases the few weeks’ Army training on Balliol premises, ‘with games on the Master’s Field, races on the river and concerts in Hall’, morphed in family legend into full Oxford degrees. I regularly receive enquiries to the archives, often though not always from descendants of these men, wanting to know more about their time as ‘Oxford students.’ Alas I do sometimes have to explode these family myths after a century, but on the other hand the real story is at least as interesting, and if they don’t like the truth – they simply don’t believe me.
But the grim realities of war daily penetrated Balliol’s tranquil garden in other ways than the dulcet tones of the drill sergeant outside the Smiths’ windows. As Master, AL had to continue Strachan Davidson’s dreadful task of writing awful numbers of letters of condolence to the families of Balliol men who died. I haven’t added up the number of letters that must have been, from the summer of 1916 through 1918 and in one or two cases even later, but AL had been at the college since 1869 and must have known personally every one of the 200 or so Balliol men who died, starting in 1914.
All sorts of more or less ordinary administrative matters continued and were mixed in with wartime issues: if we look at the CM minutes for 1916 we see all kinds of fairly mundane college issues carrying on: admissions, scholarships, Rhodes Scholars; staff pensions, releasing college servants to war work, finding enough staff to keep things going while the college was sort of in abeyance and yet constantly full; library business, repairs to properties, disciplinary matters, ecclesiastical patronage, benefactions and property questions.
And then in the middle of all this the Master, James Leigh Strachan Davidson, dies. More about the Mastership in a minute, we are still up to the eyes in busy college life…
Section 2A of the Smith archive documents his extramural work, that is, his activities with the university extension, the WEA and the tutorial classes movement. I mentioned this in the introduction but I want to emphasise that, unlike ordinary University or College life, this was something that does not seem to have abated much even during the war, perhaps even the opposite.
The University Extension, previously known as the Delegacy for the Extension of Teaching Beyond the Limits of the University, is now the Department of Continuing Education, and several Balliol dons were involved from the very early days, including TH Green and AL Smith. (Another dissertation idea: looking at women’s education and the University Extension Movement – because a large proportion of Extension lecture attendees and later course participants were women.) Correspondence relating to Ruskin College in Oxford turns up in Smith’s correspondence and committee papers in the first two decades of the 20th century. Ruskin was founded in 1899 ‘to provide university-standard education for working class people to empower them to act more effectively on behalf of working class communities and organisations such as trade unions, political parties, co-operative societies and working men’s institutes.’ The WEA or Workers’ Education Association, founded in 1903 by a man who attended University Extension classes, is another organisation for accessible adult education for all, that still exists and thrives today. William Temple, another Balliol man, was the first President of the WEA, and Balliol don RH Tawney was another active lecturer. In addition to lecturing all over the country, Smith was active on various committees for all these organisations, which seem to have overlapped and cooperated (appropriately) as well as reviewing articles for their publications, recommending or approving lecturers, devising syllabuses and examining courses, again not just in Oxford but all over England.
A large proportion of the Smith archive consists of correspondence, not only the alphabetical Letters section but the administrative ones as well, and it’s concentrated in the years from about 1907-8 onwards and is especially voluminous for the years of the Mastership. I wonder whether this is connected with the fact that MF became his secretary about that time as well. Reading other people’s letters is always fascinating, but the contents of AL’s incoming post box are worth looking at for all kinds of topics – to list just a few: how university-politically tricky benefactions were discussed and managed, administration of the Indian Civil Service training courses, all kinds of financial issues at Balliol, University rowing, the establishment of Toynbee Hall in London, constant requests from individuals for testimonials and recommendations, queries about coaching for boys by Smith, recommending coaching for someone’s daughters, endless requests to speak, and letters about Balliol admissions candidates.
From the WW1-era WEA files in the ALS archive emerges an interesting side light – an unexpected source of information about conscientious objectors. In September 1916 Smith receives a letter from Fred Hall of the Co-Operative Union: Hall has to appear before a military service tribunal – can AL help by writing a letter saying his work is of national importance? Hall really wishes to get his conscientious objection recognised without being punished. In December of the same year, correspondence between AL and J.M. Mactavish about Mr. Travena of the WEA North-Eastern District. Travena is in prison for conscientious objection, but the WEA need him. Can AL help to secure his release? AL sends back suggestions from who might help. In the spring of 1917 there is correspondence with the Cardiff Education Committee concerning the case of E. Whitefield Jones and other teachers dismissed for refusing to answer a questionnaire on Conscientious Objection. Mrs. Whitefield Jones writes to ask AL’s advice. And there’s more.
And the Balliol Boys’ Club was still going; AL had always been involved in that. Balliol Boys’ Club had started in 1907, with AL as one of the young Fellows responsible. It continued strongly throughout the war, not only keeping up whatever it could of regular weeknight activities for local working boys, but also serving as a meeting place for both town and gown old members in oxford on leave, and as a means of keeping up communication and morale via The Club at War, its trench magazine. The complete run of The Club at War has been scanned and put online, and is well worth a read.
Thus we form the impression of a busy man, to say the least. Of course all this time don’t forget a family of nine children and servants, plus boys or young men living in the house and being tutored for admissions exams– their daughters’ accounts of family mealtimes are well worth reading! And now in the midst of all these things, AL is about to become Master of Balliol.
You’d assume that a man like this must be enormously energetic, as implied by the animation of the cartoon, but it’s not straightforward in this case. Gertrude Mary, their second child and eldest of seven daughters, in a reminiscence in Goodly Heritage, notes that despite his huge energy and productivity, in fact AL never had been physically robust and had had several serious illnesses and conditions through his life – very slow heartbeat, arthritis, bronchitis. His health was never good and perhaps the necessary strain of the Mastership eventually broke it. Perhaps because of this ill health from childhood, he was a bit of a health fanatic, a strenuous rower in the days of decidedly non-strenuous rowing training, and what would now seem, though it was much more in the normal range then, a somewhat extreme daily walker. He often –somehow – found time to walk energetically in the countryside around Oxford for as much as a couple of hours a day.
AL had long been a power in the land as a Fellow at Balliol when the death of James Leigh Strachan Davidson, in the midst of the First World War, made him the new Master, and the family moved from the King’s Mound (where the Master of Balliol now lives) into the Master’s Lodgings in Broad Street. MF is at pains to mention that he wasn’t interested in being Master for its own sake, was extremely sorry to leave their sunny house and garden, and would have used any objection from her as a welcome excuse to refuse the appointment. She adds, however, that though at any other time it would have been a terrible wrench for her too, the war had already changed everything beyond recognition, and on the one hand nothing like domestic or administrative arrangements seemed to matter so much. On the other hand, what did matter was doing one’s bit, whatever was required for the national effort, and the Mastership seemed to be AL’s next duty, so they did it.
And of course he had to start his Mastership by giving the memorial sermon for his predecessor, tutor and very old friend – Balliol has his typescript notes for that sermon. Strachan Davidson ‘died suddenly of a cerebral haemorrhage on 28 March 1916, in the Master’s Lodgings.’ He had been ill for years, but his death was an unexpected crisis. Only a week before, he had been signing approved minutes of College Meeting. AL Smith must already have been designated Vicegerent, and a note of 31 March notes an Extraordinary College Meeting at which more than the usual wartime Fellows were present: Bailey, Davis and Stone. The Mastership election is set for 29 April, and Hilliard is released to Government service for the duration of the war: another Fellow down in numbers for keeping things running.
I ended up looking at the Mastership election in some detail: it sounds rather grim and dull, but in this case there was such an unusual situation, the Master’s sudden death in the middle of wartime. Who decided who would be next? Who was left to make such decisions? only the very few resident Fellows? were they quorate?
From the College Meeting minutes for January 1916 we can see who the resident Fellowship were – to compare, recall that in 1914 there were 19 teaching staff plus the Master, 15 Fellows + 4 lecturers, while in 1916, there remained only 7, soon to be 6 :
- the Master, still then James Leigh Strachan-Davidson (b1843, Balliol 1862 as undergraduate, contemporary of GM Hopkins, aged 73 in 1916, classicist),
- AL Smith (b1850, Balliol 1869 as undergrad, aged 66, modern historian), senior Dean, Master 1916
- Prof AA MacDonnell (b.1854, Balliol 1900, as Fellow, aged 62, orientalist), Boden Prof of Sanskrit, Keeper of Indian Inst (Professorial Fellow)
- FF Urquhart (b 1868, Balliol 1890 as second BA student, aged 48, modern historian), Domestic Bursar, Steward of SCR, history examiner, taking College Meeting minutes & writing An introduction to the Study of International Relations
- AW Pickard-Cambridge, (b. 1873, Balliol 1891 as undergraduate, aged 43, classicist) Jr Bursar, Librarian, tutor for Admissions
- E Hilliard, (b1867, Balliol 1904 as Fellow, aged 49, lawyer), Senior Bursar, Faculties Board
- AD Lindsay (b 1879, Balliol 1906 as Fellow, aged 37, philosopher) youngest Fellow, about to go off to be Deputy Controller of Labour in France, for which he would be awarded the Military CBE, and after a couple of years at Glasgow after the war, he would return to Balliol as Master in 1924 – on the death of AL Smith.
In effect it was Smith, Urquhart and Pickard-Cambridge who kept things running at Balliol during the war. The College Meeting minutes for 29 April 1916 show that the Fellows who could get away from war work returned for the election: Cyril Bailey (45, Ministry of Munitions), Henry WC Davis (42, War Trade Intelligence), and Charles G Stone (30, Fellow, philosopher). 
The minutes record that this election adhered to custom: ‘Special General Meeting for the election of a Master, held in the College Chapel. Mr Arthur Lionel Smith was elected Master of the College. The Master and Fellows then proceeded to the Library, where the College Seal was attached to a letter notifying the election of the Master to the Visitor.’ Formalities observed, they then proceeded to complete the previous day’s ordinary College Meeting business. A few days later on 2nd May the Visitor’s formal letter of acceptance or approval of the election was read out, and under that note is the first occurrence of Arthur Lionel Smith signing College Meeting minutes as Master of Balliol.
– Anna Sander
Sources and further reading
Archives and Manuscripts
Oxford, Balliol College Archives, College Meeting Minutes 1916.
Oxford, Balliol College Archives, Balliol Boys’ Club subfonds.
Oxford, Balliol College. Cyril Bailey Papers. Fonds level description: < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/modernmsssum.asp>
Oxford, Balliol College. AL Smith Archive, passim. Catalogue: < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith02.asp>
Oxford, Balliol College. CG Stone Papers. Catalogue: < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/stone.asp>
“Mrs. A. L. Smith.” Times [London, England] 16 Dec. 1946: 7. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
A Goodly Heritage: Reminiscences of Arthur Lionel Smith and His Wife Mary Florence Smith by Members of Their Family. For private circulation, 1950.
Balliol College [AW & H Pickard-Cambridge]. The Balliol College War Memorial Book 1914-1919. 2 vols. Glasgow: Robert Maclehose, 1924. Online: < https://www.flickr.com/photos/balliolarchivist/sets/72157625232059789/>
Chance, Eleanor, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, T G Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn. ‘Modern Oxford.’ A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford. Ed. Alan Crossley and C R Elrington. London: Victoria County History, 1979. 181-259. British History Online. Web. 9 March 2016. <http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol4/pp181-259 >.
Davis, H. W. C. “Davidson, James Leigh Strachan- (1843–1916).” Rev. Richard Smail. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. 2004. 9 Mar. 2016 <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36333>.
Elliott, I., ed. The Balliol College Register 1833-1933. 2nd ed. Oxford, OUP, 1934. Online: < https://www.flickr.com/photos/balliolarchivist/sets/72157625215890252/>
Goldman, Lawrence. Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education Since 1850. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.
________________. “Tawney, Richard Henry (1880–1962).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Oxford: OUP, 2004. 9 Mar. 2016 <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36425>
Graham, Malcolm. Oxford in the Great War. Pen & Sword, 2014.
Hastings, Adrian. “Temple, William (1881–1944).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. May 2012. 9 Mar. 2016 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36454
Jones, JH. Balliol College: A History. 2nd ed. rev. Oxford, OUP, 2005.
Patterson, R. L. “Smith, Arthur Lionel (1850–1924).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Jan. 2008. 9 Mar. 2016 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36129
Procter, Tim. Bibliography & sources for the Catalogue of the AL Smith archive at Balliol: http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith04.asp
Smith, Mary Florence. Arthur Lionel Smith, Master of Balliol (1916-1924): A Biography and Some Reminiscences By His Wife. London: John Murray, 1928.
Winter, JM. ‘Balliol’s Lost Generation’, Balliol College Annual Record, 1975, 22ff.
_________. ‘Oxford and the First World War.’ The History of the University of Oxford Volume VIII: The Twentieth Century ed. B. Harrison. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. pp.3-26.
 His academic writing does not figure at all, since it ended up being largely swept away by all the other things he was doing, so that remains to be explored as a separate topic.
 “Mrs. A. L. Smith.” Times [London, England] 16 Dec. 1946: 7. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 9 Mar. 2016.
 Chance, Eleanor, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, T G Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn. ‘Modern Oxford.’ A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford. Ed. Alan Crossley and C R Elrington. London: Victoria County History, 1979. 181-259. British History Online. Web. 9 March 2016. <http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol4/pp181-259 >.
 The Balliol College Register 1833-1933 (ed. Sir Ivo Elliott, Oxford University Press. 2nd ed., 1934), p.57.
Patterson, R. L. ‘Smith, Arthur Lionel (1850–1924).’ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Jan. 2008. 9 Mar. 2016 URL: < http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36129 >. Accessed 9 March 2016.
Procter, Tim., ‘AL Smith – Biographical Summary.’ Balliol College, 1993. URL: <http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith02.asp> Accessed 9 March 2016.
Smith, Mary Florence. Arthur Lionel Smith, Master of Balliol (1916-1924): A Biography and Some Reminiscences By His Wife. London: John Murray, 1928.
 Re Smith’s Ford Lectures, see Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive IA.3 < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith1a3.asp>
 see Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive IIB < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith2b1.asp>
 For original amateur photographs of Balliol College and environs at this period, see photo albums of Francis Fortescue Urquhart, particularly Vol. 7: < https://www.flickr.com/photos/balliolarchivist/collections/72157627230774530/ >. For facts and figures about Balliol men in WW1, see JM Winter, ‘Balliol’s Lost Generation’, Balliol College Annual Record, 1975, 22ff.
 The Balliol College Register 1833-1933 (ed. Sir Ivo Elliott, Oxford University Press. 2nd ed., 1934), p.57.
 AL Smith By His Wife
 Ibid., p. 229.
 Ibid., p.222.
 Catalogue: <http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith2a.asp> Accessed 9 March 2016.
 University of Oxford Department of Continuing Education. ‘What’s In a Name? – Our History’. Online: < https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/about/history/whatsinaname.php> extracts from Goldman, Lawrence, ‘Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education Since 1850’.
 Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive section IIA.6. Catalogue: < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/ALSmith/alsmith2a.asp>
 A brief history of the WEA, published by the Sheffield Branch: https://issuu.com/weasheffieldwea/docs/history_booklet?e=1305752/1634711 . Accessed 9 March 2016. The archives of the WEA are managed by London Metropolitan University: http://www.wea.org.uk/resources/wea-archives . Accessed 9 March 2016.
 Hastings, Adrian. “Temple, William (1881–1944).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. May 2012. 9 Mar. 2016 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36454.; Goldman, Lawrence. “Tawney, Richard Henry (1880–1962).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Oxford: OUP, 2004. 9 Mar. 2016 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36425
 see Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive section IIA and C, and WEA.
 Toynbee Hall, a university settlement house in the East End of London, still has strong Balliol associations. Students or recent graduates volunteer to live there and work for social reform regarding poverty, homelessness, education – the same issues the Settlement has been working with since the 1880s. A brief history of Toynbee Hall: < http://www.toynbeehall.org.uk/our-history>
 Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive WEA 19
 Ibid., WEA 25.
 Ibid., Letters C.10.
 Oxford, Balliol College Archives, Balliol Boys’ Club subfonds. For an introduction to the foundation and work of the Club, particularly leading up to and during WW1, see Anna Sander, ‘The Club At War: An Exhibition at St Cross Church.’ (2014) < https://balliolarchivist.wordpress.com/2014/09/13/ww1-boys-club-exhibition/>
 A Goodly Heritage, p.34.
 AL Smith By His Wife, pp.223-4.
 Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive IIIA.1.3.i.
 Davis, H. W. C. “Davidson, James Leigh Strachan- (1843–1916).” Rev. Richard Smail. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. 2004. 9 Mar. 2016 <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36333>.
 Oxford, Balliol College Archives, College Meeting Minutes 1916.
 see Oxford, Balliol College, AL Smith Archive IIIA.1.1.
 For biographical and career details of all Fellows, see the Balliol College Register (2nd ed.)
 Balliol holds papers of Cyril Bailey and CG Stone; links to descriptions at < http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/Modern%20Papers/modernmsssum.asp>
 For more information about the history and customs of Mastership elections at Balliol College, see JH Jones, Balliol College: A History. 2nd ed. rev. Oxford, OUP, 2005.